Phosphorus concentrations in the fall study were influenced by duration of weed interference but not the other experimental factors Table 3. In contrast to the mixed cropping scenario, however, optimization is dependent on the productivity of only the desirable components of the mixture. No meaningful trend over time was found however. Its herbicidal activity at a given use rate was found to be less on histosols than on mineral soil Braverman, Locasio, Dusky and Hornsby, The study of competition between weeds and agricultural crops is of this nature.

It was concluded that fertilizing to reduce crop loss to weeds is not feasible, except in the case of low weed densities. A relative crowding coefficient was determined using the techniques of Rejmanek et al. Livid amaranth Amaranthus lividus L. Because spiny amaranth grows well at low P, it could be expected to be a good competitor under conditions of low P. Below-ground competition between different species can sometimes be attributed to the availability of mineral nutrients and nitrogen.

Literature review on amaranthus hybridus

Hoeing requires a high labor input. The replacement or substitutive series was advanced by the work of de Wit although it was reportedly established prior to this Cousens, These differences occurred regardless of whether one half or one third of the broadcast rate was used in the band application and, therefore, may be due to more than optimization of rate.

These increases may be the result of reduced plant growth due to others factors becoming limiting rather than an increase in nutrient uptake. In this experiment, application of P and duration of weed interference affected lettuce yields. In spite of this modification, yields were still slightly greater for the broadcast application in the weed-free lettuce. Bill Stall, and Dr.


Current environmental and economic issues, however, compel growers to reduce fertilizer P use Alvarez and Sanchez, ; Sanchez et al.

The additive study methodology can be expanded to enhance competition assessment by a technique termed 9 “reciprocal yield analysis” Rejmanek et al. Variation in P uptake capacity by plants has been attributed to root size differences Lindgren et al.

literature review on amaranthus hybridus

Field studies in England demonstrated that when the crop was free of weeds at 3 weeks after emergence, no yield loss resulted from subsequent weed infestation Roberts et al. Restoration of the supply of each of litsrature nutrients reviw in a rapid increase in plant growth rate. Competition for light begins when one plant begins to shade another Glauninger and Holzner, These data were analyzed as a complete factorial arrangement with the main factors being P rate, density and species.

literature review on amaranthus hybridus

Such information for lettuce is scarce. This may have been due to moisture at the soil surface being inadequate for weed seed germination to reeview.

Literature review on amaranthus hybridus – Don’t have time to do homework

Includes bibliographical references leaves Subsamples were wet ashed as described by Wolf Data for revie of a density of one plant per pot were excluded from this analysis.

In the fall ofduration of weed interference affected N concentrations in amaranth Table 3.

Nandi and Greenleaf desmodium Desmodium intortum cv. The onset of crop loss to weed competition can be attributable to variation in prevailing environmental conditions and resource availability Zimdahl, The density, composition and fertility treatments used in these experiments are given in Table 4. When weeds were present until time of harvest of the crop, weed biomass under the banded P application was greater than where litearture P was added.


Dry weights were obtained as a measure of biomass. Addition of N overcame the hhybridus only partially. Beds were constructed on 91 cm centers and had a width of 48 cm at the top.

As density is increased, indices that quantify competition in replacement series tend to become less density dependent Cousens, In the P fertilizer rate was increased to one half of the Table 3.

For the duration of weed interference of 6 days, P concentrations were found to be greater for the broadcast applied P than for the other treatments. The crop responds to each of P and K amendment in a predictable manner on these soils Sanchez and Burdine, Greatest yields were obtained in the spring of Table 3. Competitive interactions between hybtidus may also literaturre place through the root systems.

Factors for which Plants Compete Of the factors that influence plant growth some are of a consumable nature reviw, water, CO2, 02 and light while others are conditions, e.

Prior to CP addition, soil was fumigated in steel drums with methyl bromide, allowed to aerate for at least 3 weeks, and then sieved through a 1 cm mesh galvanized screen.

literature review on amaranthus hybridus

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