Paraphrasing does not mean just changing an odd word, or changing a sentence if the phrasing of the original is still evident. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or numbered paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e. After the first citation, a shortened version of the reference can be used for subsequent references to the same work. You should summarise the key points you wish to make in your assignment, in your own words. If the name of the US state appears in the name of the publisher then omit the state abbreviation. Include specific page references. There is no need to include quotation marks for long quotations.
In the footnotes Footnote Number Author or designer forename surname, Name of app Year , Platform app is available from. Titles of exhibitions should be enclosed in single quotation marks referred to in the text. Issue Year , page range pages used. In the bibliography Author or designer surname, forename, Name of app Year , Platform app is available from campusM, iSheffield , iOS and Android For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section. UCL Home European Studies Current Students Essay Writing Quotations and referencing Quotations and referencing Quotations Verse quotations longer than two lines of verse and prose quotations longer than three lines of type should be indented. Book with four or more authors.
URL refers to U niversal R esource L ocator, this is the address that you will see in your web browser.
Book with four or more authors. If you are using the streaming service to watch a box set and it has no date of broadcast such as Television programmes available on 4OD marketed as Box Sets where all episodes are available without a date of broadcast follow the examples below.
MHRA: In-Text Citations
When stage direction occurs within speech, they should be enclosed in parentheses, e. Publisher, Year of publication. Terao, Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away] Tokyo: Include specific page references. As Gladwell observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.
When quoting a piece of text over 40 words it is advisable to use a long dash, known as an em dash — to introduce the quote in French and Russian. When giving dimension, give the units in cm. Subsequent references can then be provided in an abbreviated but intelligible form 2. Footnotes give details of the source that you are quoting from or referring to.
General Rules for Short Quotations If the quotation is at the end of a sentence, the full stop should fall outside the quotation mark. Publisher, Year of Publicationpages used. Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of workthe date of work if knownmedium of composition, dimensions in cmHolding institution, town of holding institution.
Quotations and referencing
Try not to over-rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the information yourself. Quotations in languages which are not English should be quoted the same as a quote in English, this means using standard quotation marks for MHRA footnote style e.
The only newspaper this does not apply to is The Times. Weilacher, Udo, Syntax of Landscape: Publisher, Year of publicationpage range used. The Last Jedi Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.
For YouTube see Video – Sharing website. Booth and others, give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell as their example.
Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when quoye title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e. Journal Article – Print. Act in Roman Numerals. In the bibliography Author surname, forename, Title of book ed.
MHRA: In-Text Citations
For Dictionary see Reference Works. Routledge,p.
The University of Chicago Press, pp. Note that the first time you cite quotte source, you should give full details in the footnote or endnote. Your Bibliography should contain full details of all works referred to in your essay and, ah required, a list of title abbreviations adopted. A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
This includes non-public postings such as: You must make it clear to your reader which piece of information you have read whilst giving details of the original e.