Sundiata, considered a harmless invalid who could not even walk, was spared. Beginning with Ghana as early as c. Because it was so big it was difficult to keep control over all the different people the Empire encompassed. By Christopher S Davis. AP Government and Politics.

They established a new dynasty called the Sunni. The government controlled the gold and salt trade levying tax from the trade sustaining stable governments. Government and Politics Massachusetts. In sonni ali was able to incorporate the trading town of jenne in Songhai empire. A History of the African People 5th ed.

Mansa musa succeeded sundiata later expanding his kingdom to Timbuktu and Gao and controlling the middle Niger. The fall of Songhai empire emerged after the death of askia daoud in a civil war of succession. Click here to sign up.

Sub-Saharan African Civilizations: Ghana, Mali and Songhai

The kingdom of Mali contributed to the formal development and mobilization of cavalry forces in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in order to command the battlefields of the savanna and Sahel regions of West Africa. These were large states enabled by the introduction of iron mining, smelting and the metal forging skills that enabled clearing of forests for cultivation and a more efficient use of the then existing resources [16].

As a result, very little is known about the time before Arab contact. The Akan people generally trace back their roots to the kintampo anf. The modern country of Ghana is not located in the same place as the Empire of Ghana.

essay on ghana mali and songhai

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were successful and well-organized states that overcame snd divisions and fused traditional beliefs with the universal ambitions of Islam. It is believed that they had large armies, sophisticated systems of governance, and systems of taxation.


Insert a link anx a new page. Askia, being a religious Muslim he was credited with the construction of mosques, opening of religious schools and opening of his court to Muslim scholars.

The Ashanti Empire founded by osei tutu in who was an oyoko military leader through negotiation and spiritual persuasion was a success and saw the rise of denkyira winning victory over nearby kingdoms [13]. Half of the Moroccan army died of thirst and starvation as they crossed the Sahara. Through a series of military victories, he took over the kingdom of Ghana and the trading cities of Kumbi and Walata. Although he did not force the conversion of his people, he encouraged the growth of Islamic schools and developed a more methodical form of government using written Arabic.

The rise of the Ashanti state saw the succession of osei tutu by opoku ware that conquered three Akan states and other several savanna states within his thirty year rule between and eventually transforming the Asante confederacy into an empire [14].

Epic World History: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

This era witnessed much attacks on the Mali kingdom by the Mossi neighbors and Tuareg Berbers gradually decreasing the power of Mali. Mahmud al-Kati, who wrote a major history of the Songhai, claimed that Askia lived for some years.

They had institutions oike the odwira festival, the national festival, the Ashanti constitution and an established army loyal to the king. They built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River near Gao.

essay on ghana mali and songhai

The Almoravids extended their control of the desert 11 July, D; Western Sudan – A. The Bronze Age indicates presence of fishing in the lagoons and rivers in archaeological evidence. The decline of the Soninke left a power vacuum in the Western Sudan. After his victory Sundjata united the Mandinke chieftains and gained control over all the southern ends of the trans-Saharan trading routes. Although that may be an exaggeration, Askia and the river people of the Niger created a strong and magnificent empire that was not seriously threatened until the invention of firearms.


Wooden African Cultural Sculptures. The ultimate rise and fall of the Ghana, Mali and the Songhai empires is a true indication of global history.

A pilgrimage to Mecca was one of the Five, or Six, Pillars of Islam and necessary for all believers who could afford the journey. Modern Ghana is about miles southeast of where the Empire was and is not related ethnically either.

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Essay

A history of Ghana. The Songhai empire was an Islamic empire and by virtue of mall there was the advancement of Islamic religion culture and the revival of Islamic mqli took place at Timbuktu. Influenced to establish by the oppressive rule of the denkyira, the Atlantic slave trade and the introduction of gun powder saw the growth in the solidarity of the oyoko people who established powerful leaders and absolutely powerful unified kingdom [12].

At the time of the Kingdom of Ghana, gold was traded for salt that came down from the Sahara desert.